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Common investing terms and definitions.
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The lowest price a seller of one unit of a security is willing to take at a particular time; also called "offer price".
A prolonged period of falling stock prices that is technically measured as a decline of 20% in the PSEi from a recent peak.
The highest bid a buyer of one unit of a security is willing to pay at a particular time.
A pre-arranged transaction executed through the facilities of the Exchange.
The minimum number of shares an investor can buy or sell at a specific price; also called a round lot.
A professional who executes buy and sell orders for stocks and other securities through the Exchange for a fee or commission.
A prolonged period of rising increasing prices that is technically measured as a rise of 20% in the PSEi from a recent trough.
Money paid to stockholders, usually from current or accumulated earnings.
Highest buying price for a security on any given trading day which is set at no more than 50% above the previous day's closing price.
A service fee charged by a broker for facilitating the purchase or sale of a stock listed on the Exchange. The minimum commission mandated by the Exchange is 0.25% of the gross value of the buy or sell transaction.
An individual or firm acting as a principal in a securities transaction. Principals trade for their own account and bear the risk themselves.
A financial ratio that measures how much a company pays out in dividends each year relative to its share price.
The Philippine Stock Exchange.
Earnings per share. It is calculated as the net income attributable to common shareholders divided by the total number of common shares outstanding.
Exchange Traded Fund. A marketable security, which trades like a common stock, that tracks an index, a commodity, bonds or a basket of assets like an index fund.
A stock is said to be ex-dividend when the purchase of such will no longer entitle the buyer to a previously declared dividend.
The date on which a buyer of a stock will no longer be entitled to dividends.
Lowest selling price for a security on any given trading day which is set at no more than 40% below the previous day's closing price.
The minimum incremental change in the bid and offer prices for a particular security.
Good till canceled. A trading option that keeps an order open for a set period time unless it is consummated or cancelled.
The illegal practice of buying or selling of securities on the Exchange, to one's own benefit, using material non-public information.
An Initial Public Offering is the first time that the stock of a private company is offered to the public.
Shares of stock that have been sold or distributed to shareholders.
In trading shares of stock, it is the ability of the market to absorb a large volume of buying or selling without dramatically affecting the price.
The admission of securities for trading on the Exchange.
Shares of stock that have been properly deposited in the Depository System.
A method of buying shares that involves borrowing part of the transaction cost from one's broker. The collateral for the loan is usually securities in an investor's account with the broker.
The total market value of a company at a given time. It is calculated as the number of common shares outstanding multiplied by the share price.
A prohibited act that attempts to influence the closing price of a security by executing buy or sell orders just before the market closes.
A quantity of shares that is less than one board lot.
Over the counter; a security that is not listed and/or traded on or through the Exchange.
Issued capital stock that is held by shareholders. It excludes issued shares that are held in treasury by a company.
An arbitrary value given to a stock at the time of issuance that is used to record the value of the shares in the books of a corporation.
A method of valuing a company that measures its current share price relative to its EPS.
The company that specializes in holding securities so that ownership can be easily transferred through a book-entry system instead of transferring actual physical certificates. It serves as the hub where securities are cleared, settled and made available for lending.
A collection of assets owned by an individual investor or institution which may include, but is not limited to one or more of the following: shares of stock, mutual funds, money market funds, ETFs bonds and commodities.
Philippine Stock Exchange Index. It is composed of the 30 biggest and most liquid securities listed on the Exchange.
The date on which stockholders must officially own shares in order to be entitled any shareholder rights or dividends.
A government tax amounting to 0.5% of the gross value of shares of stock sold.
Securities Clearing Corporation of the Philippines, a subsidiary of the PSE which was established to provide centralized clearing, settlement and risk management services.
Physical evidence of ownership in shares of stock as in a stock certificate.
The trading system wherein settlement is carried out through book entries rather than the physical movement of shares of stock.
Securities and Exchange Commission. The government institution that supervises and regulates the securities industry. Among other functions, it formulates policies and recommendations on issues concerning the securities market.
Shares that have been previously issued by a corporation.
The date on which payment is due to settle a trade. For trading through the PSE, settlement is 3 days after the trade date.
The practice of selling a borrowed security with the expectation that the price of the security will go down. The borrowed security is returned after the seller buys it back from the market.
A piece of paper that shows evidence of a shareholder's ownership in a corporation.
A dividend payment made in the form of additional shares rather than a cash payout.
A temporary suspension in the trading of a listed company.
An entity appointed by a listed company to maintain stock ownership records, to cancel and issue stock certificates, and to resolve problems related to lost, damaged or destroyed certificates.
Issued and previously outstanding shares of stock that have subsequently been bought back or otherwise acquired by a listed company.
The peso value of all transactions consummated during a particular period. It may be for a particular stock or for the market as a whole.
The total number of shares trade during a particular period. It may be for a particular stock or for the market as a whole.